Defence Assessment 2021: he moana pukepuke e ekengia e te waka

Published: 08 Dec 2021

Category: Publication

Defence Assessment 2021: he moana pukepuke e ekengia e te waka / a rough sea can still be navigated was released on 8 December 2021 by the Secretary of Defence alongside the Minister of Defence.

The document provides a comprehensive review of the challenges to New Zealand’s strategic defence interests, as well as defence officials’ advice to Government on changing New Zealand’s defence policy settings.

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Additional info

Additional info

Defence Assessment 2021 concludes that two major challenges will have the greatest impact on New Zealand’s security interests over the next 20 years. These are:

  • strategic competition; and,

  • the impacts of climate change.

To respond to these challenges, Defence Assessment 2021 recommends New Zealand’s defence policy should shift from a predominantly reactive risk management-centred approach to one based on a more deliberate and proactive strategy.


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This copyright work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licence. In essence, you are free to copy, distribute and adapt the work, as long as you attribute the work to the Ministry of Defence and abide by the other licence terms.